E Governance Research Paper
E-governance means electronic governance. It is application of Information Technology in government functioning in order to have good and smart governance. Smart here refers to Simple, Moral, Accountable, Responsive and Transparent. This involves using information and communication technology by government agencies to have transparent dealings with different users. Thereare many reasons for which e governance is required. Some of them are as follows:
(a) Information exchange with citizens, businesses or other government departments
(b) Speedy way of doing work
(c) Time and cost saving
(d) Efficient delivery of public services
(e) Improving internal controls
(f) Increasing revenue
(g) Re-structuring of administrative processes
(h) Providing quality services
Information and Communications Technology (ICT) has provided means for faster and better communication, quality services, efficient storage, effective work, processing of data and exchange and utilization of information to its users. It helps in providing better controls and increasing revenue. All individuals, groups, businesses, organizations or governments are benefited by the advantages of ICT. It is a faster, more accurate and simpler means of word-processing and is now being used as a tool for tabulating data which finally helps in decision making. With increasing awareness of using computers and internet many users are benefited and they are motivated to modify their ways of doing things in order to en-cash the advantages provided by ICT.This has led to re-engineering of business processes.
The process of re-engineering helps in faster and better processing of information and thus a better decision making, greater reach and better utilization of resources .This helps in having overall good governance. In the case of citizens, it provides enhanced access to information and government agencies, efficient service delivery and transparency in dealings and also acts as an information tool to the government.With the increasing awareness among citizens about their rights their expectation has totally changed .Today they expect government agencies to be transparent in their dealings, accountable for its activities and faster in its responses. For this use of ICT helps in achieving good governance. The technologies used helps in achieving a wide range of objectives. There is equitableand faster development with a wider reach. Today Ethics in Governance, with the help of tools of modern technology such as Information and Communications Technology (ICT) should be used to transform the relationship of the government with its employees, citizens and businesses, and also between its own agencies. It has been recognised that e-Governance is the logical step with the use of ICT in systems of governance in order to ensure wider participation and deeper involvement of citizens, institutions, civil society groups and the private sector in the decision making process of governance.
REQUISITES OF E GOVERNANCE
For effective e governance the foremost requirement is that workplace has to be fully computerized.Computer is the mostImportant requirement for e governance.Computers should be connected so that online work is possible.There has to be some online work flow procedure. Government employees should be trained so that they can work on the software. The training is required so that they become user friendly with the software. Services should be fully accessible. It also insist in removing the paper based system and making everything computerized to increase the transparency of work and a speedy flow of work is possible.
TYPES OF INTERACTIONS IN E GOVERNANCE
G2G (Government to Government) In this case, there is interaction within government agencies to improve the efficiency and overall output. The interaction can be within a government organisation or between two government organisations. Information and Communications Technology helps not only to restructure the governmental processes involved in the functioning of government entities but also aids in increasing the flow of information and services within and between different entities. The interactions can be either vertical or horizontal. Horizontal i.e. between different government agencies as well as between different functional areas within an organisation and vertical i.e. between national, provincial and local government agencies .There is also interactions between different levels within an organisation. The primary objective of G2G is to increase efficiency, performance and output.
May be horizontal or vertical
Functioning of government agencies
Increase in efficiency
G2C (Government to Citizens) In this case, there is an interaction between government and citizen. A common platform is created between the government and citizens which enables the citizens to benefit from large range of public services. This provides the availability and accessibility of public services on the one hand and improves the quality of services on the other.Here is a two way communication model in which there are direct interactions between government and citizens involving transparent dealings between the parties. It gives citizens the choice of when to interact with thegovernment (e.g. 24 hours a day, 7 days a week), from where to interact with the government (e.g. service centre, unattended kiosk or from ones home/workplace) and how to interact with the government (e.g. through internet, fax, telephone, email, face-to-face, etc). The primary purpose is to make government, citizen-friendly.
Acts as an interface between govt. and consumer
Expands accessibility to public services
Makes the government citizen friendly
Ensure transparent dealings
Examples of G2C Transactions:
Online paying of bills
Filing of FIR
Licensing and registration
Procurement and Bidding
Tax and fee payments
Citizen help desk
Public Information network
Search property assessment values
Property tax payments
Information about political processes and services
Increased citizen participation
G2B (Government to Business) In this model there is interaction between government agency and business organisations. E-Governance tools are used to help the business community providers of goods and services interact with the government. The objective is to cut red tapism, save time, reduce operational costs, increase revenues and to create a more transparent business environment when dealing with the government. The G2Binitiatives can be transactional, such as in licensing, permits, procurement and revenue collection. Trade, tourism and investment opportunities can be effectively handled with e governance . These measures help to provide a suitable environment to businesses and thus enable them to perform more efficiently.
E governance used to aid business community
Transparent transaction deals
1. Payment of taxes by business houses
2. Tender applications are transparent
If any business house has applied for a brand name it can also be monitored online and status can easily be known.
There can be transparent dealings in all tenders and different government works.
G2E (Government to Employees) In this model there is an interaction between government organisation and employees. Employees can interact with the government in regular basis. The interaction can even be vertical where the employees can give feedback at the assurance of their name held anonymous. Today through e governance they can also have a look at their TDS and pay roll status. E governance provides them with a common platform to remove their queries and thus giving an effective performance. This interaction is a two-way process between the organisation and the employee. Use of ICT tools helps in making these interactions fast and efficient on the one hand and increase satisfaction levels of employees on the other.
Facilitate government and employee communication
Fast and Efficient
Increases satisfaction of employees
Synergy in work output
Removal of bias
Implementation of e governance in India
Indian government has taken many initiatives in the field of IT for the desired implementation of e governance in India. The plan popularly known as the E governance action plan correctly portrays the long term growth action plan for India. Its successful implementation was seen during the period of 2003-2007. It provided both the citizen centric and the business centric governance all together at the local, state and the national level. It was a good kick start an many flaws were seen thereto such as suitable system for quickly motivating the states needs to be improved, a single window for providing services to the citizens should be implemented, whether and whenever possible outsourcing of services should be implemented for quicker growth perspectives, more efforts were required to stabilize and increase the public private partnerships, improved connectivity was required. Such flaws were thoroughly noted and improved thereon.
Apart from the 2003-2007 action plans, many other plans were successfully implemented. Some were:
Implementation of Information Technology Act, 2000 .It helped in providing the legal framework for all the electronic transactions. The act came into force on 17 October, 2000.
National Taskforce for Information Technology and Software development was established in the year 1998.
Centre for E governance was created for successful linkage of the local, state and he national level and so that efficient help could be made disposable at all ends.
e office was established so that offices , ministries , departments and authorities could be electronically connected.
HPC i.e. the High Powered Committee was created with the cabinet secretary made its head for the successful implementation of e governance.
A Joint Secretary level Officer as the IT manager was appointed in every Ministry and Department.
Websites for all Ministries and Authorities was developed for the wide coverage and availability of E governance.
One can surely say that E governance has been successfully implemented in India. A lot more needs to be achieved in this respective area. Majority of the states are implementing E governance in their working. They are making a collaborative effort in shifting from the manual working model to the electronic working model. It can be inferred that more of the planned implementation of IT is what the need of the hour.
More of powerful, efficient, quicker strategies may be drawn for a powerful implementation of E governance.
Success of E governance in India
India as a country is majorly built on Bureaucratic structures which are built in rationale principles and therefore is definitely failing ti cope up with the present scenario. Therefore a shift from such traditional practices to the complete new electronic world was definitely requires. E governance plays the major role for the implementation of such paradigm shift toward the module of E governance which itself holds as one of the major reasons for its success. Now we have single window operations, more simplified procedures, a better office and record management, less corruption, better job and position handling.
The service delivery mechanisms have considerably improved.
We need not stand in long queues now, there is less of procedural complexities and the personnel working has considerably improved and has become more transparent. The reason behind such success is the successful implementation of the Information and the Communication Technology. The citizen has become more aware now.
He is no longer a puppet in the hands of the government employees and has got a full right to question any kind of discrepancy.
E governance is surely a success. A transparent government with a satisfied consumer is what E governance is responsible to produce. E governance in India has definitely given us such results to see which is a step ahead for a developing country like India.
Major E-Governance Projects in India
1. Project Vidya Vahini :-
Project Vidya Vahini is a project started by Government of India in collaboration with Shiksha India, a non profit organization launched in December 2001. Shiksha India was launched to equip Indian schools with 5 Cs:
3. Coaching (Teacher Training)
5. Commercial sustainability models
Project Vidya Vahini portal provides the opportunity for schools, teachers and students all across the nation, to express and share their creative and academic potential via the internet. The portal further aims at creating such an environment by providing facilities for Content Development, Content Deployment and collaboration.
Further the mission of the project is to spread better education and uniform quality of education across India to develop the creativity and problem solving skills of the Indians. Shiksha further strives to increase the earning capacity, reduce information arbitrage in rural India and promote entrepreneurship by providing computer literacy.
Shiksha India is also working in partnership with The Ministry of Information Technology in the project Vidya Vahini and Ministry of Human Resources under the CLASS scheme which aims to connect 60.000 schools (approximately 20 million students) across the country in next five years.
End Users/Beneficiaries: Populace
State where Implemented: Across India
Website: http: www.vidyavahini.ernet.in/content/shiksha.htm
2. Project Stamps and Registration Software:-
Project Stamps and Registration Software is one of its kinds of project started by the Government of Maharashtra. Generally the stamp and registration department of any state is the top revenue earner for any state government. The Stamp Registration software provides efficient government citizen interface, and also enables enhanced revenue earnings for the Stamps and Registration operation.
The core of this application consists of the Registration and Valuation module. Other modules are the Networking and Scanning modules that enable exchange of information securely across departments, and electronic copying of the registered documents thereby enabling return of the original document within few minutes of presentation. The stipulated turnaround time is approximately 25 minutes; 15 minutes for registration and 10 minutes for scanning the document (Before getting computerized, it used to take many hours and sometimes days). The project after being successfully run for IGR, Maharashtra in Pune sites, is being proposed to be implemented in BOT (Build Operate Transfer) basis with participation from private parties.
End Users/Beneficiaries: Populace
State where Implemented: Maharashtra
3. Project Setu :-
Project SETU was introduced by the government of MAHARASHTRA to felicitate the very basic need of the people and introduce a single window interaction of redressal of all their grievances. With the help of IT this single window interaction is made faster, convenient.
The main objective of this project was to reduce the effort of the common man to obtain various certificates.
Prior to implementation of this project, to obtain a certificate common man had to run from pillar to post of various government offices. This resulted in a lot of hardship.
The Project Setu not only provided the users a one stop destination for a number of certificates but also a faster and a more transparent response to their problems.
In the initial phase, this project was implemented in the big cities, after studying the response, the government is planning to implement this at taluka and subtaluka level.
The Integrated Citizen Facilitation Centres (SETU) is to work on the basic needs of the citizens and reorienting our administrative processes accordingly. The aim is to lay the foundation for e-governance, create visible impact of the intention of the Government in this direction, and facilitate the interaction of the citizens with the Government to make it more transparent, pleasant and satisfying. To create foundation for citizen centric e-governance, at district headquarters subsequently at taluka headquarters
Single window clearance of 83 important certificates (includes renewal of leases, permits
Quick redressal of public grievances
Common registry of letters, petitions for all sections of the office.
On line pendency monitoring of all above
To provide services after office hours on holidays also in order to save Time, Money Energy of the public.
End Users/Beneficiaries: Populace
State where Implemented: Maharashtra
Website: http: http://setu.maharashtra.gov.in
4. Project Fast Transport Department Automated :-
This project aims to curb the rampant corruption in the traffic department of the state.
Project fast was started as a pilot project in three main cities namely Secunderabad, Vijayawada and Chittoor.
Fast is the short form of Fully Automated Services of Transport aimed at providing a citizen friendly, corruption free and a prompt service related to traffic department like issue of driving license registration of motor vehicles.
The objective of FAST is to make the transport department citizen friendly in its functioning and provide SMART services to the public. It is intended to build comprehensive database and provide on-line services to the public covering various services like Issue of Driving Licenses, Registration of Motor Vehicles, Issue Permits, Collection of Motor Vehicle Taxes, etc.
All the RTO department would be linked to each other to felicitate better communication and all the offices in the state would have interconnectivity through APSWAN.
The computerization process is planned to take place in two phases. In phase I, Regional Transport offices of Secunderabad, Vijayawada and Chittoor have been covered on pilot basis. The remaining offices are to be covered in the second phase. However, a less powerful central server is to be located at the office of the Transport Commissioner for the purpose of inter-connectivity between these three RTO offices.
End Users/Beneficiaries: Populace
State where Implemented: Andhra Pradesh
Website: http: http: www.aptransport.org
5. Project Mudra :-
MUDRA Municipal Corporation towards Digital Revenue administration.
This project is intended to help Holding owners, Tax collectors, and officials at headquarter levels and Circle levels. This would help them to get a total picture of tax collector and would help them to make a better future decision.
This project is designed to computerize the overall functions of tax collection system of Patna Municipal Corporation.
Revenue management is the key to economic stability and development of urban infrastructure to help it to discharge its function properly and cater to the requirements of economic development.
The basic objectives of this software, developed and implemented by NIC Bihar State Unit includes bringing improvement to the quality of service being offered to the citizens and at the same time, it will also become possible for the first time to track all kinds of defaulters on payment of taxes due. This will assist the Municipal Corporation in acting quickly and well in time and is expected to have a very positive impact on the total revenue that is currently being collected by the Municipal.
End Users/Beneficiaries: Officials of Municipal Corporation
State where Implemented: Bihar
6. Project Bhoomi :-
This project was started by the govt. of Karnataka with an aim of benefiting the rural population of the state. As the name itself i.e. BHOOMI convey that, the project is related to land. This project came into existence because of the difficulty the farmers have to suffer previously for getting a copy Records of Rights, Tenancy and Crops RTC. This document is helpful while procuring bank loan. Delays and bribes were also being asked. But after the enforcement of this project this document can be availed by paying a fee of Rs. 15 only. Under this project the revenue dept. of the state has maintained 20 million records of land owned by 6.7 million farmers by which a computerized copy of RTC is available at the kiosks (BHOOMI CENTERS). This technology is designed by national informatics centre. This project has won silver CAPAM awards 2002 for the in valuable contribution in uplifting of the rural population in the state.
End Users/Beneficiaries: Rural People
State where Implemented: Karnataka
7. Project E-Seva (Electronic Seva)
This project was launched on 25th august 2001. This is the improved version the TWINS project launched previously on 1999. Under this project the govt. of Andhra Pradesh has opened around 36 e-seva centres in spread over the twin cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad and Ranga Reddy district, it provide around 118 different facilities to the local public from 8.00 am to 8.pm and 9.30am to 3.30 pm on holidays. 70 centres are in operation covering municipalities in 13 districts. It provides services of the likes of payment of utility bills/tax, issue of birth/death certificates, filling of sales tax returns, diff B2C services, and registration of application for passports, etc.
These services can be availed at any counter in the centre, others than these some 21 more types of services like railway reservations, TTD services, Bill payments of different cellular co. like AIRTEL,VODAFONE,RELIANCE. Etc. Govt. has also earned a whopping revenue of around 2000 crore (Feb 2003). So it is helping both govt. as well as the public.
End Users/Beneficiaries: Populace
State where Implemented: Andhra Pradesh
8. Project Lok Mitra :-
This project is also known as INTEGRATED CITIZEN SERVICE CENTRE / E-KIOSKS, ICSC. This is the first project its kind in Rajasthan. It aims at providing certain INFORMATON TECHNOLOGY services to rural population of the state. The services are like teach the public how to use credit cards for making payments, and others different it related services in a single window. It is a one stop citizen friendly computerized centre located in the heart of the city of Jaipur.
The whole mechanism is governed through a computer server which is linked to different departmental servers through dedicated leased line dial-up network with multiple e-counters.
End Users/Beneficiaries: Populace
State where Implemented: Rajasthan
9. Project Dristee- Connecting India village by village
This project is also known as WORLD AT A GLANCE for the people who have been benefited yet by it. This project provides e-governance and provides facilities related to health, education, market related information, and private related exchange and transactions. Dristee offers its platform to any service provider who wishes to market its range of products to rural India by plugging its range of services offered at village level.
This provides scope for the rural people to sell their products at the market at highly beneficial prices such that they earn a maximized rate of return. It also provides social benefits like access to education and health care information. It is helping in reducing the migration of people from rural to urban areas.
Dristee is presently capable of enabling the creation of approximately 50,000 information kiosks all over India within a span of six yrs. These kiosks would be able to serve around 500 million people, with an aggregate discretionary purchasing power of Rs.100 billion in less than two yrs.
This communication backbone has been supplemented by a string of rural services for example:- avedan, land records, gram daak, gram haat(virtual village market), vaivahiki(matrimonial), shikhyat,etc.
this project at last provides employment to a large section of unemployed population in the village. Around 45000 people have been employed till 2003 under this programme by the kiosks owners.
End Users/Beneficiaries: Rural and semi-urban people
State where Implemented: Haryana, Punjab, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Orissa
10. Project AArakshi :-
This project is an intranet based system that has been developed and
Implemented for Jaipur City Police. This innovative system enables the city police officers to carry out on-line sharing of crime Criminal data bases carry out communication and perform monitoring activities.
The Software provides a facility to update Perform queries on database of:
Ã‚Â· Latest News of criminals Crimes.12
Ã‚Â· Telephone Directory of Police Officers.
Ã‚Â· Instructions of Police Control Room on Real Time basis.
Ã‚Â· Habitual offenders details along with photo gallery.
Ã‚Â· Description of criminals.
Ã‚Â· Missing Persons.
Ã‚Â· Police Personnel.
Ã‚Â· Property Details.
Ã‚Â· Numbered / Unnumbered property.
Ã‚Â· Vehicle theft / Seizure.
Ã‚Â· Cultural Property.
End Users/Beneficiaries: Jaipur Police Officials
State where Implemented: Rajasthan
HOW THE NATIONAL CAPITAL DELHI CAN BE BENEFITTED FROM E-GOVERNANCE
As the various projects that have been studied above in the research paper have been implemented in different parts of our country successfully ; its very much required that such efficiency in implementing the projects should be shown in our national capital i.e. Delhi. Around the time clock , such projects have shown efficiency in the working system of the particular area , laws have been better maintained , efficient property assessments have been procured , reduction in corruption have been noticed , lesser time wastage and a fairer and a transparent government has been achieved. From the above study we can observe that such regulations should be proceeded with the Delhi region as well.
Firstly to start with as far as the stamp papers are concerned , the common problem that one faces is the unavailability of the required denomination by the buyer. Due to such problems they have to buy higher denomination stamp papers and therefore a common citizen faces trouble. Therefore if such stamps are made available online , e governance would prove helpful and reduce a common citizens problems.
Secondly, if e governance is successfully implemented in the delhi region people and the government can come into contact with each other at a single point. Hence no time wastage on a citizens part and no resources wastage on the part of the government would prove advantageous. Commonly a citizen needs to be in contact with the government as regards the issue of birth certificate, death certificate, and other legal documents that a citizen would commonly reqire at his very own disposal. It is the duty of the government to make his citizens available to all such requirements. Therefore, if e governance is successfully implemented in delhi region , such issues can be easily solved.
Thirdly, if e governance is successfully implemented in Delhi , the long licensing and application procedures can be simplified to a great extent. The procurer can fill the forms and the desired information online with just the authentication procedure to be done physically. This will reduce a lot of problems faced both by the citizen and the government.
Fourthly, e governance implementation in Delhi and around the regions can make the payment of taxes , allotment of identities , collection of payments and funds and various other financial transactions very transparent and accurate.
Peoples legal issues , transparency , faire government , better access to information , change for the working module of new culture can all be easily maintained. With the successful implementation ICT penetrators , lack of trained human resources and very large geographical distances can be easily resolved.
1.Records Of World Bank
2.Sites which were Referred
Government of india, Information Technology Actin plan : IT for all Indians by 2008 ; http://it-taskforce.nic.in
Kochhar Sameer and Gursharan Dhanjal , (2005). E government Report Card , Yojna , Vol.49
American Intercontinental University Unit 1 Individual Project CRJS 105 â€“ Theories of Crime Causation November 11th, 2010 Abstract The following will examine the differences between criminalists, criminologists and forensic psychologists. It will then transition into how what exactly is a white collar crime and a blue collar crime. Lastly the paper will discuss the differences between index-one and index-two crimes as defined by the UCR. Media Portrayal of Crime Introduction With the prevalence of crime being portrayed in the media world, it can be difficult for the modern American to decipher all the aspects of crime.
Criminology, the study of crime and its causes, is a excellent way to find out just what makes a criminals mind tick. Although it may be hard to know just what makes a person commit a crime, having a better understanding of the base of criminal justice aspects may be of assistance. Criminologists, Criminalists, and Forensic Psychologists With a plethora of jobs out there relating to the field of criminal justice, it may become overwhelming to try and decide who does what and how they do it. To have a better understanding of such fields one must know exactly what each field does separately from the other.
A criminologist uses sociological theories and methods to study criminal behavior and how societies respond to crime (Hall, 2010). This means the criminologist seeks to find out the mentality behind a crime and how that thinking affects the society as a whole. By creating theories as to why of how this crime was committed the criminologist can form a wide array of possible answers for the crime. A criminologist would most likely be in an office but regularly would attend a crime scene to interview witnesses and others to gather sociological data about the crime.
A criminalist examines physical evidence using investigative skills and practical experience. A criminalist is forced to look at nothing but the physical evidence of a crime without prejudice of the person or persons involved. This type of crime evaluation allows for an individual to make findings based on what is physically presented before them. In way you can say that evidence doesnâ€™t lie so the criminalist should not be able to either as they are required to follow the evidence. A criminalist would be most commonly found at the site of the crime collecting physical evidence related to the crime.
After the collection a criminalist would be typically found at a crime laboratory, analyzing the collected evidence. Forensic Psychology is the application of the science and profession of psychology to questions and issues relating to law and the legal system (abfp. com, 2010). This side of the criminal justice world refers to strictly the legal side of a crime. In this profession and individual would focus primarily on the criminal/person/persons on trial, as well as any other individual as it related to the case and would be required to provide an expert opinion on topics such as sanity, and competency.
The psychologist enters the mind of the individual through a series of interviews and allows a better understanding of the person beneath what we see on the surface. Criminologists are typically found at interviews and trials related to the crime. This would typically be at the police station of in a courtroom. Misconceptions of such fields With constant development of new television shows relating to police work, as well as media portrayal of the criminal justice field, there can often be misconceptions placed upon these fields of work.
A common misconception related to the field of criminology (criminologist) is that they live a life of danger and unpredictability. While the criminal mind can be unpredictable criminologists often stay low key and behind the scenes as they are analyzing the criminal mind and would not want to compromise that by running around in the field. In the life of a criminalist, the most common misconception has been brought on by the onslaught of television shows such as CSI and all its spin offs. The typical criminalist doesnâ€™t run around shooting at bad guys in the newest designer jeans, or analyzing evidence in seconds.
A criminalist is usually in a decontaminated suit and gloves doing nothing but collecting evidence. They are not there to fight crime nor solve it, they are there specifically for evidence collection (Criminalist, 2009). And as for the seconds long analysis, itâ€™s more like weeks for a result to be returned, sorry to burst your bubble! Finally, a forensic psychologist may look like a cool job on the television show Profiler, but in actuality, there is much more to it than what is portrayed. While criminal profiling is one aspect of this field, there are many more unseen.
They work in a wide variety of settings connected to law, depending on their prominence in forensic psychology. Clinical psychologists in the forensic field, for example, may work in a mental health center, a hospital, a prison, or a private agency. Developmental psychologists are found in both medical and academic settings, as well as give consults in court in regards to the behavior or testimony of children. So as you can see the media skews our view of what these individuals actually do and are responsible for. White Collar Crime vs. Blue Collar Crime
When you first hear the terms white collar crime and blue collar crime, you may think, â€œPeople who commit crime are classified by the color of their collars? â€ On the contrary that is not the case. The terms White Collar and Blue Collar refer to the class of society in which a crime is committed. Blue collar crime typically refers to such crimes that are most likely committed by individuals in a lower class of society. Crimes of this nature are typically unplanned, spontaneous and sometimes involve direct harm to a person or property of others.
An example of a blue collar crime would be an armed robbery of a bank of store by a person who is desperate. On the contrary, white collar crime is usually found among a higher class in society and consists of corporate, state and high tech crimes (Mojolaw. com, 2010). A good example of white collar crimes would be things such as Ponzi schemes, pyramid schemes, and the Enron debacle. White collar crimes are most often planned and well thought out as they take a lot of attention to commit. Often the person/persons involved have a lot of money to provide a defense for themselves if caught.
For this student, who watches media quite regularly it is hard to make a determination as to which type of crime is more prevalent. You constantly hear of more and more people desperate for money in these hard times so, blue collar crimes are being committed more. But it can also be argued that the white collar side is hurting to so there are more stories of fraud and schemes taking place. This student would have to say though, blue collar crime tends to be more focused on because it usually involves a form of violence which the media seems to gravitate towards. Index-One vs. Index-Two Crime
As defined by the Uniform Crime Reporting Handbook of 2004, Index-One crimes are considered to be the most heinous. The crimes include but are not limited to, Criminal Homicide, Forcible Rape, Robbery and Aggravated Assault. It can be assumed that all serious felonies will fall under an index-one crime. Index-Two crimes are all other crimes that do not constitute a classification in Index-One. These crimes consist of less serious offenses such as fraud, vandalism, disorderly conduct, and DUI. These would be all arrestable offenses that are reported to the FBIâ€™s statistics center.
These crime indexes have no fine line, as there is a huge difference between the two. Index one crimes often involve physical harm to an individual whereas index two crimes are typically considered petty. When making a judgment as to which crimes that fall under Index one are violent or not, that can be left up to ones interpretation of violence. You have to consider each situation differently because, although motor vehicle theft in of itself is not violent, if aggravated assault occurs than that theft becomes violent.
This student would have to conclude that in most cases all crimes listed under Index one offenses, they would be considered violent. Conclusion The media will continue to skew the aspects of crime, and that has been happening for years. It is up to the public to want to obtain the truth about what a specific job or career actually entails. If a person lives their life believing everything they hear from someone else, then they are simply uninformed of the truth.
Crime will always be a hot topic throughout society, so society must become educated in all facets of the criminal world (without committing crime itself). References The Differences Between Criminology and Forensic Science (2010). Hall, Shane. Retrieved on 11-Nov-2010 from http://www. ehow. com/list_6109148_differences-criminology-_amp_-forensic-science. html Criminalist. Criminal Justice USA (2009). Retrieved on 10-Nov-2010 from http://www. criminaljusticeusa. com/criminalist. html ABFP Brochure. Forensic Psychology. (2010). American Board of Forensic Psychology.
Retrieved on 11-Nov-2010 from http://www. abfp. com/brochure. asp Forensic Psychology â€“ Myths and Truths. (2010). All Star Directories, Inc.. Retrieved on 09-Nov-2010 from http://www. allpsychologyschools. com/psychology-careers/community/forensic-psychology-myths Mojo Law. (2010). Blue Collar and White Collar Crime, Mojolaw. com. Retrieved on 13-Nov-2010 from http://www. mojolaw. com/info/cl020 Uniform Crime Reporting Handbook. (2004). Federal Bureau of Investigations. , Retrieved on 09-Nov-2010 from http://www. fbi. gov/about-us/cjis/ucr/additional-ucr-publications/ucr_handbook. pdf
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